An elderly woman displays her inked finger after casting her vote during the 2016 presidential elections in Uganda.
The outcome of the race between increasingly artful electoral manipulation and limitless possible manifestations of democratic expression is never entirely certain.
Rwandan presidential candidate, Frank Habineza, waves to supporters.
With frequent irregularities, it's easy to become cynical about elections in Africa. But polls are an essential component of the continent's growing democracy.
Rwanda’s election is being watched closely by observers concerned about an erosion of democracy.
The next Rwandan presidential election will take place in a week's time. Incumbent Paul Kagame will be the certain victor, but a few other candidates have thrown their hats in the ring.
The 28th Assembly of Heads of State and Government of the African Union in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
The African Union is changing the way it does business. Its new reforms, led by Rwandan President, Paul Kagame, call for fewer strategic priorities and addressing bureaucratic bottlenecks.
Rwanda’s President Paul Kagame is seen as having promoted economic growth at the expense of human rights.
To improve, African countries need to find a balance between political and economic matters. This is where leadership becomes particularly important. But this is currently lacking on the continent.
A policewoman carries a Burundi flag during a protest against President Nkurunziza’s decision to run for a third term.
The competition between the two authoritarian regimes has become a fact that, given the regional context, is here to last. It justifies repression and indefinitely postpones democratic expression.
In the 1990s Paul Kagame of Rwanda, along with Yoweri Museveni of Uganda and Meles Zenawi of Ethiopia, were considered the democratic darlings of Africa.
Africa's democratic promise of the 1990s has lost its shine. Hopes for accountable rule have faded in Uganda, Ethiopia and Rwanda. All have blocked the path to meaningful popular empowerment.
Victims of sexual violence in eastern Congo, 2007.
Even with the end of the war in central Africa, continuing instability in the region has triggered an epidemic of rape.
Rwanda has no succession plan to President Paul Kagame.
The reality of Rwanda is that there is no viable alternative to President Paul Kagame, within or outside his ruling RPF. Political rivals have died, are jailed, or have fled the country.
Supporters of Rwandan president Paul Kagame in full cry.
Recent changes to the Rwandan constitution appear to have been tailor-made for the current president. This does not bode well for the country's future constitutional base.
Rwandan President Paul Kagame at the 2016 World Economic Forum meeting in Davos. He has drawn flack for seeking a third term.
Unlike the third-term fever afflicting the Great Lakes region, Rwanda is not mired in corruption and stagnation. Rwandans were fearful and anxious about what might happen after 2017 without Kagame.
Rwandan president Paul Kagame has long benefited from the support of the US.
Paul Kagame, the President of Rwanda, has carefully orchestrated a constitutional reform that allows him to remain in power for the next 18 years.
More than 100,000 people have fled Burundi since violence erupted in April.
Rwanda and Burundi, once the conjoined twins of East Africa, marked over five decades of going separate ways since independence. Today, the difference in their fortunes couldn't be more stark.