It's not easy being a ref. Everyone's your critic, and you have to run more than 8km each match to keep up with the play.
Serena Williams challenged decades of stereotypes when she revealed her anger after she disagreed with a U.S. Open umpire. A racist caricature and calls to boycott her playing by umpires followed.
Video assistant referees have led to some controversial decisions at the World Cup. Rather than improving the quality of decision making by on-field refs, VAR could undermine it instead.
VAR is part of a wider trend of digitalisation that threatens to make football less natural and spontaneous.
Video Assistant Referees at the World Cup finals in Russia might help African teams to do better than they have done so far.
Even back in the 90s, researchers were trying to alert hiring managers to the ineffectiveness of this as a tool, noting some major problems.
The data shows NRL referees get it right most of the time. So why do they still cop criticism?
A centralised video ref for next year's NRL season aims to reduce the dramas surrounding refereeing decisions in the game. But how often do the on-field refs get it wrong?
Controversial refereeing decisions dogged the later stages of the last couple of World Cups. Little wonder that teams are doing their homework on officials like never before.