It is extremely important to monitor local seismic activity before fracking starts to avoid causing harm.
A vulnerability map could help assess the risks associated with fracking and groundwater which around 300 towns depend on in South Africa's Karoo.
South Africa's Karoo region potentially holds shale gas that could transform the energy economy of the country. But given the uncertainties around exploration what's the next logical step?
South Africa has been considering shale gas development in the Karoo region. The gas, will be expensive to explore and extract, will be used as part of the country's energy mix.
Shale gas holds considerable advantages. But there are still a number of uncertainties around whether South Africa is ready for such a bold step.