A Helmandi policewoman is trained to load and fire a weapon in 2009.
Successful counterinsurgency depends on winning the hearts and minds of men and women.
Zimbabwean President Robert Mugabe’s clampdown on dissent in Matabeleland claimed up to 20 000 lives.
EPA/Aaron Ufumeli/ Pool
The effects of President Mugabe's post-independence security clampdown that led to the murder of between 10 000 and 20 000 Zimbabweans, known as the Matabeleland massacre, continue to be felt.
Local vigilantes patrol communities in north east Nigeria to repel attacks by Boko Haram militants.
Nigeria's failure to protect its citizens from Boko Haram's insurgency has given rise to vigilante groups north east of the country.
The official Angolan broadcaster, or Emissora Oficial de Angola, under construction between 1963-67.
Fernão Simões de Carvalho
Portugal used radio propaganda in its colonies in the 1960s against local liberation movements. Decades later there are still lessons to be learned for occupying armies from their failed strategies.
Filipinos protest after a huge bombing in Davao.
A major insurgency is humiliating the Filipino army and sucking in huge ransoms – but all anyone wants to talk about is Islamic State.
President Rodrigo Duterte talks with former president Benigno Aquino III, shown here in 2013.
Ryan Lim/Malacañang Photo Bureau
The Philippines suffers from many internal conflicts. Can the new president bring about a much-needed peace?
Women march on Abuja demanding the rescue of 200 schoolgirls.
The world is waking up to Boko Haram. More than 200 schoolgirls kidnapped from the classes last month remain missing. A car bomb in Abuja on May 1 killed at least 19 people. I live in fear of Boko Haram…
Syrian troops on patrol in Aleppo. Historically, what has the role of counterinsurgencies been in conflict zones?
The Syrian civil war is in its 31st month and shows few signs of abating. The death toll is now estimated at over 115,000, according to the Syrian Observatory for Human Rights. Understanding this level…