The world changed dramatically after the 2008 financial crisis and central banks are adjusting.
The 2008 financial crisis exposed major gaps in central banks' operations. New features like quantitative easing have since emerged.
Credit rating agencies often elicit criticism when they downgrade countries.
Credit rating agencies have come in for a lot of flack. But the bottom line is that to attract investors with deep pockets countries can't avoid having a credit rating. And a good one at that.
In times of market jitters, investors flock to “safe-haven” investments like government bonds.
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Uncertainty about economic growth is driving record low long-term government bond yields, but there's more to the story.
Gold and silver are traditionally considered “safe havens”.
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Safe haven investments are investments that provide a low level of risk during periods of extreme economic uncertainty. The problem is that a safe haven investment is a safe haven investment until it is…