And will the aviation sector implement vital lessons learned from Icelandic disruption in 2010?
'Volcano forensics' involves a mixture of modern day monitoring and analysis of past eruptions. Geologists use volcanic rocks as a kind of time capsule to assess what happened previously.
How do scientists predict volcanic eruptions? To do so with accuracy, they need to know the individual volcano and its history very well.
The world watches and waits to see what will happen next at Bali's Mt Agung, an active volcano.
Hundreds of earthquakes a day are being recorded near Mount Agung in Bali as the volcano threatens to erupt for the first time in more than 50 years.
Volcanic ash can cause a nuisance to farmers, burying agricultural lands and damaging crops. But in the long term, this ash will create highly productive soil that can support huge populations.