Historical records can help us understand what will happen to the northern lights.
The end of 2016 has brought balmy Arctic temperatures and record low ice extent for the time of year. It's a freak event even by modern standards, and climate models point the finger firmly at humans.
Without understanding why the 'fingerprint' has failed to appear our predictions about global warming - as carbon dioxide concentrations increase - are uncertain.
It's one of the remotest places on Earth and yet is still claimed by six nations – including Australia.