It is extremely important to monitor local seismic activity before fracking starts to avoid causing harm.
A vulnerability map could help assess the risks associated with fracking and groundwater which around 300 towns depend on in South Africa's Karoo.
The earth's own magnetic field offers a useful way to measure the age of rocks - information that can help unpack ancient events and aid our understanding of the present.
South Africa's Karoo region potentially holds shale gas that could transform the energy economy of the country. But given the uncertainties around exploration what's the next logical step?
The Moschops fossil was discovered in South Africa in 1911 and a new study of a complete skull shows how its dense braincase protected the brain and sense organs during head-to-head combat.