Kenyans rally for a new constitution in 2010. The constitution guaranteed shared power and resources for 47 county governments.
The Kenyan example illustrates the importance of constitutional guarantees for devolution. But it also shows that devolution is no magic bullet for the problems of corruption and ethnic politics.
In the 1990s Paul Kagame of Rwanda, along with Yoweri Museveni of Uganda and Meles Zenawi of Ethiopia, were considered the democratic darlings of Africa.
Africa's democratic promise of the 1990s has lost its shine. Hopes for accountable rule have faded in Uganda, Ethiopia and Rwanda. All have blocked the path to meaningful popular empowerment.
African leaders meet at the African Union Summit held in Johannesburg, South Africa, in 2015.
Silencing the guns in Africa by 2020 will require a Herculean effort on the part of the AU Peace and Security Council, whose remit is to prevent, manage and resolve conflicts.
A Nigerien voter makes his feelings felt.
African elections and referendums are still a heady mixture of the graceful and the shameless.
Riot police detain a supporter of Forum for Democratic Change, Uganda’s leading opposition party, as they break up a campaign procession.
The heavy-handed tactics used by Uganda's authorities during the 2016 elections have raised questions about a return to an oppressive past.
Here we go again.
Uganda's president has ruled for three decades – and the opposition is getting stagnant too.