By the end of the 1990s, the idea of encroaching deserts had become difficult to defend.
Africa's great green wall suffers from a major mismatch between ambition and effort. But that's not to say it should be ditched altogether.
A protest against President Joseph Kabila. The poster reads: “Kabila must leave without any conditions”.
Attempts to deepen democracy in Africa by limiting presidential terms to two have not entirely quashed a culture of entitlement to rule. Glimpses of it persist, much against citizens' wishes.
South Africa’s opinion of its role in Africa is at odds with perceptions on the continent.
South Africa considers itself to be playing a key role in promoting the 'African Agenda' in continental and world affairs. But perceptions in the rest of Africa tell a different story.
Republican presidential nominee Donald Trump during a campaign rally in Sunrise, Florida.
Achieving greater freedom and equality for all identity groups is African democrats' primary goal. By contrast, American democrats have traditionally been preoccupied with individual rights.
Africa must rise by becoming self-reliant.
US Army Africa/Flickr
Africa has been called a "consumer continent" by many, but in reality much of what its people consume is produced elsewhere. Technology is key to Africa becoming a self-reliant producer of goods.
African leaders meet at the African Union Summit held in Johannesburg, South Africa, in 2015.
Silencing the guns in Africa by 2020 will require a Herculean effort on the part of the AU Peace and Security Council, whose remit is to prevent, manage and resolve conflicts.
Investment in science and innovation is needed to help build Africa.
Kate Holt/Africa Practice/Flickr
Successful economies are led by innovation and driven by knowledge. For Africa to advance, it needs to make more substantial investments in its research and development sector.
Heads of state at an African Union session in Addis Ababa. They have signed up to a plan that envisages strengthening institutions and governance.
If the governing ANC ignores the calls for Zuma's resignation,it may undermine South Africa's leadership on the continent. It creates the idea that he can undermine the constitution with impunity.
China’s choice of South Africa to host the China-Africa summit underscores the special relationship between the two countries.
The Africa-China summit will provide an opportunity to get a feel for how Chinese President Xi Jinping is responding to democratic developments in Africa.