Some of the factors behind the riots by ANC supporters in Tshwane are not new. They include gripes within the governing party about its process for choosing mayors and divisions over Jacob Zuma.
The increase in rioting ahead of municipal elections in South Africa, such as that in Pretoria, suggests that the country's general election in 2019 could be more violent than previous elections.
Childhood asthma in low- and middle-income countries is on the rise and symptoms are often more severe. Contributory factors include living with anxiety and being exposed to community violence.