Antiretroviral drugs suppress the HIV virus and stop progression of the disease.
The introduction of Pre Exposure Prophylaxis drugs in Kenya aims at reducing new HIV infections among people facing substantial ongoing risk.
In the Democratic Republic of Congo, HIV is still highly stigmatised.
HIV remains a synonym for death in Kinshasa and many leave testing and treatment until it's too late. It's not common knowledge that an infected person can live a normal and healthy life.
Activists supporting the decriminalisation of sex work at the 21st International AIDS Conference in Durban, South Africa.
International AIDS Society/Abhi Indrarajan
South Africa has launched a plan to tackle HIV, TB and sexually transmitted infections -- but much depends on its implementation over the next five years.
People with a certain gene have an adverse reaction to the antiretroviral efavirenz.
Up to 50% of the people who take the efavirenz antiretroviral react particularly badly to it and need to change drug regimens.
A photomicrograph of the Cryptococcus fungus.
More than 250 000 patients at highest risk for cryptococcal meningitis but no symptoms will be screened in South Africa annually to reduce the number of deaths.
Medical circumcision in settings where there are high rates of HIV will only be successful if these interventions take into account local beliefs about circumcision.
Testing and treatment is important in tackling HIV. But stigma and access need to be addressed too.
Taking antiretrovirals is key to reducing HIV infection rates, but the challenge lies in making sure people who know they are infected actually take the drugs.
South African HIV rights group, the Treatment Action Campaign, marching through Durban, calling for antiretroviral access for all.
International AIDS Society/Rogan Ward
Current epidemiological and financial trends suggest there's a major risk of a substantial shortfall in the funds required to sustain life-saving antiretroviral programmes.
Simplicity of delivery will be critical if a ‘cure’ is going to be deliverable in the parts of the world where HIV is endemic.
Curing HIV – or at least achieving long-term remission – is possible, under the right circumstances.
The more scientists understand about what drives HIV transmission, the more they can start to fight the virus.
Rupak De Chowdhuri/Reuters
Three new studies conducted in South Africa provide insights into the engine that drives HIV transmission in the country.
Activists, health-care workers and scientists in South Africa were faced with a horrific epidemic but went on a ruthless crusade to turn it around.
ART for all?
New guidelines from the World Health Organization mean more people are eligible for antiretrorviral therapy. It's critical to find ways for people to start treatment without multiple clinic visits.
Reuters/ Mike Hutchings
In South Africa, female sex workers go for HIV tests, receive counselling and use condoms – but don't access antiretroviral treatments. More options are now available and can change this.
There is an urgent need to generate robust evidence that shows how the social determinants of health influence people’s abilities to protect themselves against health risks.
Interacting with communities can provide health planners with critical information that can help them solve health challenges in specific areas.
The call to action to address childhood vulnerability in Africa must go far beyond those children infected and affected by HIV.
The call to action to address childhood vulnerability in Africa must go far beyond the 17.8 million children infected and affected by HIV.
A community health worker walks a couple through an HIV test in Malawi. Mostly men do not access these services.
Baylor College of Medicine Children's Foundation–Malawi / Robbie Flick
In sub-Saharan Africa more women may be infected with HIV than men - but men are more likely to die because of poor testing and treatment regimes.
Treatment has transformed the outlook for people living with HIV from almost certain death to a manageable chronic condition.
Despite the breakthroughs in HIV and AIDS research, without an effective vaccine, the world will not get to zero new infections and deaths.
A man lights candles as part of a World AIDS Day event in Jakarta.
Globally, the health community is moving to a point where there could be zero new HIV infections or deaths. But it has been a long road.
Anglo American’s plans to reduce its operations will have an impact on the provision of health services to miners.
The closure of several mines in South Africa and production cuts could have a detrimental impact on the health of miners who rely on in-house HIV and TB treatment programmes.
Advances in HIV treatment have turned it into a chronic, but manageable, illness. In this photo: Artist Damien Hirst’s ‘Where there’s a will there’s a way,’ which shows antiretroviral drugs in a medicine cabinet, is seen as it is displayed at a gallery in New York, February 4 2008.
Thanks to treatment advances, people with HIV can and do live long and full lives. And that has led to a challenge that doctors and patients may not have imagined 35 years ago: the aging HIV patient.