These days neither the public nor governments consider passports as a serious obstacle to freedom of movement.
In the 20th century, governments considered the “total abolition” of passports as an important goal and discussed the issue in several international conferences.
The centenary of the first world war is being memorialised around the world. But as it fades from living memory, our children's education sits uneasily with the uncritical demands of commemoration.
The Sykes-Picot Agreement divided up the Asiatic provinces of the Ottoman Empire into zones of direct and indirect British and French control.
By Royal Geographical Society via Wikimedia Commons
Over the years the words Sykes-Picot have taken on two meanings – one significant, the other less so.
The promise of recently explored oilfields dictated British interest in Mesopotamia (roughly, modern-day Iraq) during the Sykes-Picot Agreement negotiations.
The Sykes-Picot Agreement delivered the spoils of war to Britain and France, and deferred the dreams of Arab nationalists.
Food was a powerful, and ever-present theme of the first world war.
Ward 43, Frank Ward, 1943. © IWM (Art.IWM ART LD 6600)
From crossing cultural barriers with a cake, to starvation used as a brutal tool of war, Australian soldiers' letters and diaries reveal an urgently important relationship with what they ate.
Presidents Hollande and Obama. Is it still possible for nation states to build a global alliance against organisations such as Daesh?
To save mankind from the scourge of war… These eight words drawn from the preamble to the Charter of the United Nations have been ringing in my head for the past week. Most believe that they were penned…
The life Adams was leading 100 years ago was far from a Hollywood fantasy.
Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, DC.
This Remembrance Day, spend some time with Claire Adams Mackinnon – the silent Hollywood movie star who stole the heart of Melbourne bachelor and lived the last 40 years of her life in Victoria.
Thinking about Australia’s war experience in comparison with others will soften some of the hyperbole surrounding Anzac.
Armistice Day provides a moment to reflect on Australia’s self-identity in comparison to other nations that experienced the first world war and commemorate it to this day.
People attend the remembrance of the victims of the Srebrenica massacre on the Plein, in The Hague last week.
EPA/ Martijn Beekman
Genocide has occurred throughout history, from the very beginnings of the social organisation of human communities until the present. But working out what do about it is no easy task.
The tragedy at sea captured by a London Illustrated News artist
The torpedoing of the passenger liner in 1915 was abhorrent but the story behind the story reveals one of the first effective government propaganda campaigns
A French field kitchen in use by the French troops within half a mile of the Turkish lines on the southern section of Gallipoli Peninsula, 1915.
As Australians commemorate the Anzacs who died at Gallipoli, spare a thought for the 10,000 French soldiers who also died on the Dardanelles in the first world war.
Livestock wagon with Armenians in the Summer or Autumn 1915.
Historisches Institut der Deutschen Bank, Frankfurt.
In 1915 and 1916, the Ottoman Armenians were destroyed as an organised community and more than one million of their number were killed – just as the Allies' failed invasion of Gallipoli took place.
The Australian flag is flown at Anzac Day parades but it’s not the flag that soldiers at Gallipoli fought under.
AAP Image/ Dan Himbrechts
When Australian soldiers fought at Gallipoli, they did so under the Union Jack. Our flag has changed since then and debates about national identity have shifted. Is it now time for a new flag?
Protesters attend a huge anti-conscription rally at Yarra Bank in Melbourne, 1916.
National Library of Australia, n6487142
The democratic freedoms Australians hold dear today – freedom of the press, assembly and speech – were won on home soil by courageous women and men who sacrificed much, but rarely recognised for it.
Would the Anzac Day game of two-up be a more meaningful commemoration if it were still illegal?
Anzac Day is the one day of the year it's legal to play two-up. If we want to retain the thrill that was so important to the diggers, we'd keep it illegal rather than sanitising the practice.
In 1915, Australians came to terms with total war – and were prepared for the battle at Gallipoli and conscription in 1916.
Australian War Memorial/Flickr
It was not the excitement but the seriousness of the first world war that captured the imaginations of Australians. The experience of 1915 had a marked effect on local commitment to winning the war.
Archival photographs such as the above, from Gallipoli, are one resource documentary makers draw upon to communicate understandings of historical events.
Australian War Memorial/Flickr
War history used to be brought to TV audiences by donnish lecturers but historical reconstructions now hold sway. Two recent docos about Gallipoli are hybrid examples of the form that help us better understand the past.
As the Royal Irish Rifles fought at the Somme in 1916, the war was shaping epochal events at home.
Imperial War Museums/Wikimedia Commons
Local loyalties, differences and antagonisms were everywhere affected and often amplified by the advent of the first world war.
Aboriginal gargoyles are the Australian War Memorial’s only overt representation, albeit unintentional, of a violent history of colonisation.
The Australian War Memorial promises to tell 'our story' about the nation's war experience – but it silences many stories about Australia's nationhood and glosses over Indigenous experience.
Australian troops in France in the first world war – and one of Australia’s women medics, possibly Dr Laura Foster.
More than 20 Australian women doctors defied official discouragement and served as surgeons and medical officers in the first world war.