Law enforcement's historical tendency to treat crimes committed by white power groups as isolated incidents has allowed them to flourish.
Teenagers become indentured to drug dealers after owing them money for weed, creating a hierarchy of exploitation with the user at the bottom.
Social farms provide health, social and educational care to disadvantaged young people.
How city and state governments identify and keep records of suspected gang members can be problematic. Good data are essential to addressing violent crime across the US.
West London group 1011 music group have been banned from making music without police permission.
When big data is used for police profiling and surveillance, it puts human rights on the line.
Trump justice officials portray the Salvadoran gang MS-13 as a powerful drug cartel staffed with criminal undocumented immigrants. That's a dangerous mistake if you actually want to prevent violence.
Stabbing deaths among young people are at an eight-year high – and the government is not doing anything effective to solve it.
Being the victim of trauma can trigger the onset of PTSD. But so can being violent against others – which means young people in gangs risk deep psychological scars.
Young people from poor backgrounds are being radicalised by criminal gangs.
Corruption, not gang warfare, is the root cause of the record violence in El Salvador, Honduras and Guatemala. Until public officials stop shielding criminal groups like MS-13, lawlessness will reign.
On the eve of its departure from Haiti after a 13-year stabilization effort, the UN faces accusations that its troops used excessive force to fight gangs, killing innocent bystanders.
It's too easy to blame gang culture.
In Rio de Janeiro, a stray bullet kills or injures one person every seven hours.
Young people in El Salvador are finding themselves caught up in the war between the gangs and the state.
A spate of recent attacks using acid have gained attention, but little is known about the motivations of the perpetrators.
The murder of 11-year-old Rhys Jones in Liverpool in 2007 sparked a national debate on armed gangs – but what has changed 10 years on?
Trump's plans to crack down on immigration could create the same conditions that led to MS-13's birth and expansion.
Next time you hear of a young person being branded as a feral gang member, dig a little deeper.
Violent massacres at prisons in the country's north, have disrupted a delicate balance of governance.