Technology which located Mayan cities has been used to rediscover a southern African city from the 15th century.
Cuneiform was used for over 3,000 years in the Ancient Near East, but was only decoded in the 19th century. The writing form is still revealing amazing stories, from literature to mathematics.
More than 2,000 years ago, the Babylonians understood the cycle of eclipses. They also regarded them as signs that could foretell the death of a king.
Love, it is said, is a battlefield, and it was no more so than for the first goddess of love and war, Ishtar. Her legend has influenced cultural archetypes from Aphrodite to Wonder Woman.
From environmentalism to the meaning of life, the themes of the world's most ancient epic are still remarkably relevant to modern readers.
It was in Mesopotamia that the world's first cities emerged, along with the invention of writing and the codification of laws.