Gabon's Ali Bongo Ondimba has watched over constitutional changes that have given him far reaching powers.
Rap has become instrumental in constructing identity and radically reshaping relations to politics in Gabon and other African states.
National electoral commissions are crucial in shaping public perceptions of how well democracy is working. Poor electoral management can enable fraud and produce political alienation.
Ali Bongo seems to have won Gabon's elections. Yet his contested "victory" has radically changed the political field in this soft democracy, one of Africa's richest and most stable.
Gabon has the lowest trust ratings of any election commission among the 36 African countries surveyed by Afrobarometer.