After the most recent elections, Catalonia's secessionist coalition is free to form a government. But their president is still exiled in Belgium.
The single biggest party was anti-independence but together, the pro-independence bloc is stronger.
Barcelona has become the test case for separatists Europe over.
After declaring independence, regional leaders stand accused of rebellion, sedition and embezzlement. But what does that mean?
An ousted leader, a divided electorate and the risk of further violence pile on the tension ahead of the December vote.
Move by the senate in Madrid came just after the Catalan parliament voted for independence.
After threatening to declare independence, Carles Puigdemont has stepped back from the brink. But that has caused confusion.
The European Union is quick to condemn countries like Venezuela and Turkey when they engage in anti-democratic tactics. So why is it so silent on Spain's treatment of the Catalan?