Doping whistleblowers can face serious negative consequences including threats on their lives.
Usain Bolt (third left) and Nesta Carter (right) at the IAAF World Championships in Beijing.
One of Bolt's 4 x 100m team mates has tested positive for a banned substance – costing Bolt one of his gold medals.
Vladimir Putin has developed populism across many fields, from his own image to Russian sport and media.
Kremlin Press office
Understanding the populism of the Putin government is more urgent than ever as Russia plays a major geopolitical role in the Middle-Eastern balance.
From Sharapova to the Brownlee brothers, 2016 has given us one step forward to one step back.
The Team Sky boss is due to give evidence to MP's at parliament. Here's what they should ask him.
Young footballers dream of places far away and are ready to migrate at all costs.
What do the concepts like 'cheating' and 'performance enhancing' mean to young African footballers?
Inspiration or rebuke?
Paralympians are being hailed as inspirational. This doesn't please everyone.
The doping arms race is bound to continue despite the strengthening anti-doping position.
Extensive drug use was reported at the 1952 Helsinki Games, but it was the death of two athletes that finally galvanized international sporting authorities into taking action against doping.
Kenyan-born Ruth Jebet, just 19, waves the Bahraini flag after winning gold over Kenyan competitors at the Rio Olympics.
Kenya's international success in track and field hides management inefficiencies and corruption that have frustrated athletes and fed a pipeline of runners willing to ditch the national flag
Jim Thorpe and Ben Johnson were both banned from the Olympics. But if each had played at different points in history, they would have been allowed to compete.
Nick Lehr/The Conversation
In sports, what's considered fair play has changed throughout history. At one point, even looking 'too poor' was grounds for exclusion.
Gold medal winner Mack Horton (centre) said he had no time or respect for drug cheats in reference to silver medallist Sun Yang.
Rarely do we see such unscripted individual honesty on difficult topics such as doping, right in the middle of arguably the biggest international sporting stage.
Athletes seek to gain competitive advantages in lots of different ways and many of these are not banned.
Doping simply gives athletes an advantage that can be compared to other forms of training regimes. So why the moral outrage?
There’s little justification for a blanket ban; all Russian Olympic athletes did not collectively commit a wrong.
The IOC will allow Russian athletes to compete in Rio 2016 if they've been cleared by their respective international sporting federation of doping. Should other countries pull out of the games?
Do PEDs make athletes less human?
'Cyborg' via www.shutterstock.com
As technology becomes fully integrated into our everyday lives, we may see athletes as the last vestiges of our humanity.
The scandal of systematic doping orchestrated by Russian government agencies and the Russian anti-doping body (RUSADA), involving the disposal of thousands of biological samples or their replacement with…
Higher, faster, stronger.
Only a better understanding of what drives doping can improve enforcement. To do so, we must break with the perception of doping as an individual or moral problem.
The countries who regularly top the medal table spend millions on training and developing athletes, money that poorer countries simply can't afford to spend on their sporting stars.
It’s grossly unfair to hold Russian athletes responsible for the mistakes of regulatory authorities.
The International Olympic Committee will allow Russians wanting to compete in the Rio 2016 Olympics the chance to do so if they can prove they're clean to their sports federation.
Russian Sports Minister Vitaly Mutko speaks to the media in Moscow.
Alexander Zemlianichenko Jr/AAP
The entire Russian Olympic team could be banned from competing in the 2016 Rio Olympics. How can the International Olympic Committee ban an entire country?
The IOC must act, probably by banning Russia for being non-complaint with the international anti-doping regime.
Where Russia broke the cardinal rule of doping – don’t get caught – the anti-doping regime has broken a cardinal rule of nature: don’t poke the Russian Bear.