South Africa's Reserve Bank is facing a growing challenge of illicit financial flows and money laundering from gangs and errant businesses hell-bent on tricking regulators.
There are disturbing questions around the complicity - witting or unwitting - of UK global financial institutions in the transnational network set up by President Jacob Zuma and the Gupta family.
South Africa is breathing a sigh of relief after escaping a credit rating downgrade. But there are still serious concerns around structure of the country's economy and finances.
A radical tightening of exchange controls against corporations and wealthy individuals offers a short-term solution to South Africa's balance of payments crisis.
In Africa, commercial activities are the largest component of illicit financial flows. This is followed by organised crime and then public sector corruption.