Police used water cannons and tear gas to remove a group of migrants and refugees from a square in Rome in August.
The number of people arriving has risen, but is not the highest on record.
It is a dangerous and illegal move to make.
There is an assumption that migrants are pulled to Europe as a 'destination' of choice. New research shows that often isn't the case.
The Conversation asked two experts to look at the data.
There are fundamental differences between Libya and Turkey, when it comes to returning migrants.