Being the victim of trauma can trigger the onset of PTSD. But so can being violent against others – which means young people in gangs risk deep psychological scars.
The debate about the nature of early trauma memories and their recovery isn't new.
Using creativity and artistic metaphor to tap unconscious memories helps release pent up trauma.
Mental health trauma has always been a part of war. Treatments have come a long way over the last century, but we still don't understand why the responses change for different people and times.
When we think of post-traumatic stress disorder, we tend to think of soldiers returning from war. But other sections of society are far more likely to suffer from repeated bouts of trauma.
To reduce female recidivism rates, we need to address inmates' histories of trauma and abuse.
PTSD isn't all about bombs and bullets. The baggage soldiers and medics bring to war zones will help us better understand diverse responses.
Even indirect exposure to the terrorist attacks of September 11 has left profound and deep impact on those too young to remember a world before that.
100 years after the Battle of the Somme, we are only now starting to unravel the mystery causes of shell shock.
While the global health community has made mental healthcare a priority, South Africa is not following suite. The impact is felt most acutely by poor people suffering from mental health disorders.