Testosterone is primarily made in the testes, and creates many of the characteristics we see in adult men.
Disorders affecting penis development are among the most common birth defects seen in humans, and rates are on the rise.
These photos show mothers or family members holding infants born with microcephaly, one of many serious medical problems caused by congenital Zika syndrome.
AP Photo/Felipe Dana
There is no vaccine or medicine for Zika. But researchers have identified factors in the blood that signal a fetus has Zika-related birth defects, helping mothers decide whether to terminate a pregnancy.
An animal experiment in a laboratory of the pharmaceutical company “Chemie Gruenenthal,” which manufactured the drug Thalidomide, in West Germany in 1969. Thalidomide was prescribed by doctors as a mild sleeping pill and for relief of morning sickness but caused the miscarriage and birth of thousands of children with severe malformations globally.
A new book, 'The Thalidomide Catastrophe,' raises new questions about the conduct of corporations involved. It is the duty of governments to find out the answers.
Genetic data holds a wealth of health information.
There is a need for genetic services in low and middle-income countries.
The FDA recently issued a draft guidance for testing drugs in pregnant women. Here's why it's a good thing.
An unexpected breakthrough looks promising for finding new drugs to treat two deadly diseases.
The film Wonder tells the story of a boy with severe facial defects.
IMDb/Lionsgate, Mandeville Films, Participant Media, Walden Media
People with facial difference often develop strategies for smoothing over social awkwardness, such as ways of introducing the issue into conversation early or using humour to deflect attention.
A panel of experts has ruled that Primodos did not cause birth defects. But what's the science behind their decision?
The much-hyped study didn’t actually test vitamin B3 supplementation in humans.
The new study on birth defects and vitamin B3 has important implications, but researchers didn't actually give any of this vitamin to humans.
About 3% of babies are born with birth defects, when there is a problem with how they develop in the womb.
We still don't know what's behind four out of every five birth defects. But that can change.
Deciding whether or not to continue on medication in pregnancy is always a balancing act.
A study has shown an association between antidepressants in pregnancy and risk to the baby. But there are many factors to consider if deciding whether to stay on an antidepressant if you're pregnant.
Pregnant women are told to avoid vitamin A due to the risk of birth defects, but does anti-ageing cream count?
Anti-ageing cosmetics are common and many contain forms of vitamin A, but are there any risks using vitamin A on your skin during pregnancy?
With more birth abnormalities linked to Zika, effects of the virus may be more sinister than we thought.
Arthrogryposis is where a baby's joints are deformed due to a shortening (known as contractures) of the muscles from before birth.
Talking with patients who’ve had Zika is tough.
Pregnant woman and doctor image via www.shutterstock.com.
Physicians like me are learning about Zika along with our patients. This takes a dose of humility on our part and an understanding from our patients that we learn something new every single day.
A display used to educate the public on rubella vaccination and the mother-to-fetus transmission of this virus.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention via Public Health Image Library
Though separated by time and place, there are surprising similarities in the the social issues raised by the rubella outbreak of 1964-65 and the recent Zika outbreak in South America.
Human embryo at 5 weeks.
The MHRA has opened an inquiry on the once popular pregnancy test pills. Did they really cause birth defects in children born in the 1970s?
Municipal workers wait before spraying insecticide to prevent the spread of Aedes aegypti mosquito at Sambodrome in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, January 26, 2016.
Zika was discovered almost 70 years ago, but wasn't associated with outbreaks until 2007. So how did this formerly obscure virus wind up causing so much trouble in Brazil?
Thalidomide was used by the pregnant women – the population that turned out to be most vulnerable to its risks.
Thalidomide's manufacturer, Chemie Grünenthal, marketed the drug as safe for pregnant women despite reports it was causing malformations in newborns. Why such blatant denial?
Thalidomide was marketed as a safe, sleep-inducing drug, but when taken during pregnancy it could cause severe birth defects.
Documents reveal thalidomide's manufacturer was warned about possible harms as early as 1956.