Standards for prenatal care for incarcerated women vary from state to state, and when care is available, the quality might not be adequate.
As a country that claims to uphold the human rights of all – including those before the law – Australia should take notice of international practice when it comes to life imprisonment.
Even though mental illness is consistently associated with criminal behavior, these conditions are largely undertreated in our prison system.
The undeniable difference between men and women when it comes to committing crime should be reflected in a fundamentally different approach to the sentencing of women.
Almost 60% of short-term prisoners reoffend - ensuring they have a place to stay could seriously reduce that risk.
Transgender woman Vikki Thompson died after being placed in an all-male prison. It's time we stuck up for the rights of trans people.
The screen is as close as many people get to experiencing prison. But do these dramas offer a realistic insight into life behind bars?
If we want to see re-offending rates go down, a radical solution could be to train prisoners in how to start their own businesses.
The United States could have a more productive discussion about prison reform, if we admitted the problems with prisons also affect our poorest communities.
Victoria is failing in relation to rehabilitation of prisoners and post-release support. The consequence is that more people are imprisoned, more often.
Economic growth and investment is supporting prison reform, but it will take time to root out deeply ingrained bad practice.
President Obama wants to reopen access to Pell grants to prisoners. Studies show when men and women enroll in college programs, they are less likely to return to prison.
When it comes to their targets and tactics, inmates follow a predictable pattern.
The US is facing a silent crisis on prison probation, and the UK is following its lead.
It's fair to say Victoria's ban on smoking in prisons has had some teething issues, but there's strong evidence to suggest the move is doing the right thing by inmates, staff and the health system.
Oscar Pistorius was convicted of culpable homicide for what was deemed a tragic accident. In light of that verdict, he has not been subject to any special treatment in terms of his sentence.
Prisons cost data should facilitate comparisons of relative performance, value for money and efficiency. But limitations on the quality of the data mean that, more often than not, they don’t.
The success of probation programmes based on swift and certain sanctions has led to more than 160 such schemes operating in the US. Australia should consider whether the model might work here too.
Approaches to crime that rely on punitive methods have proved to be ineffective and counter-productive. Rehabilitation programmes not only prevent crime, but are cost-effective and practical.
A new generation of Indigenous youth is being separated from their families and culture – this time by the force of criminal law that ignores the proven alternative of community-based justice.