Researchers have found mothers are more likely to use the “negative touch” than fathers.
Researchers anonymously observed 106 discipline interactions between caregivers and children aged between three and five in public places.
The study showed kids who received some kind of physical discipline when they failed to obey their caregiver in public reacted better to the “positive touch”, given by male caregivers the majority of the time .
“Negative touch” parenting included arm pulling, pinching, slapping, and spanking. “Positive touch” parenting involved hugging, tickling, and patting.