Howard Barrell served in the ANC Intelligence underground inside South Africa and from exile in the 1980s in the struggle against apartheid. A journalist for some 20 years, he is a former editor of the Mail & Guardian. For the past 13 years, he has taught aspects of journalism and insurgency at Cardiff University in the UK.
He is the author of a brief history MK: The ANC’s Armed Struggle (Penguin, 1990). His D.Phil thesis at Oxford University (1993) is entitled: Conscripts to Their Age: ANC Operational Strategy, 1976-1986. He has lectured extensively and written several journal and other articles on the ANC’s tactical performance and on the uses of strategic nonviolent action in pursuit of political outcomes.