Trained in medicine at University College London. Trained in psychiatry at the Institute of Psychiatry, Kings College London. Full time researcher for the Medical Research Council, and director of an MRC Unit, and part-time clinical psychiatrist at the Maudsley Hospital, London. Worked in the National Health Service for 37 years. Now retired from clinical work but still active in teaching and research. Took part in the international studies of schizophrenia sponsored by WHO. Research on families and schizophrenia, couple therapy for depression, 13- year evaluation of deinstitutionalisation in London. Studies of ethnic minority groups and schizophrenia. Research on traditional healing, Ex-Chair of UK Healers.