Liisa Past is the Chief Research Officer at the cybersecurity branch of the Estonian Information System Authority. She designs, leads, and carries out analysis related to cybersecurity, including risk and impact assessment. Previously, she was the Head of Communications for the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence and contributed to the world’s largest international technical cyber security exercise, Locked Shields. Past has been involved in a number of non-profits specializing in democratic education and human rights, and she has advised NGOs ranging from the Estonian Atlantic Treaty Association to the Roundtable for Development Cooperation and Chamber of Disabled People. Past seeks to bolster longterm cyber defense planning in Estonia by developing multi-scenario strategic planning approaches, defining performance indicators, and advancing situational awareness tools.