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Trial complete: electric vehicles can work in Australia

Australia’s first electric vehicle trial has been completed. It ran from early 2010 to the end of 2012 with 11 electric Ford Focus and 23 fast-AC charging bays (Level-2). We found few technological barriers…

Western Australia’s three-year trial found electric cars are a good fit for Australian cities. Luke Stearns

Australia’s first electric vehicle trial has been completed. It ran from early 2010 to the end of 2012 with 11 electric Ford Focus and 23 fast-AC charging bays (Level-2). We found few technological barriers to the adoption of electric vehicles (EVs) in Australia, but government incentives for early adopters and government programs for the roll-out of fast-DC charging stations would help Australia fully embrace these cars.

The cars

When we started the trial, no electric cars from major manufacturers were available in Australia. Because of this, we used converted Ford Focuses. The conversions were performed locally by WA company EV Works. Each car was equipped with a 23kWh battery pack, a 27kW DC motor and a 1000A motor controller.

The cars were used as regular fleet vehicles by our 11 project partners from government and business, demonstrating their usability for everyday driving.

The cars achieved a road-tested driving range of 131km on a single charge (dynamometer testing resulted in a 143km range). This significantly exceeds the driving range of a Mitsubishi i-MiEV, which achieved a 112km range under identical road-test conditions.

Fleet of Electric Ford Focus

The charging stations

We installed 23 charging stations for Level-2 fast-AC charging around the Perth CBD. We adopted the international charging norm IEC 62196 with European “Type-2/Mennekes” connectors, which have two advantages over “Type-1/J1772” charging stations:

  • They can charge EVs with either Type-1 (US/Japan) or Type-2 (Europe) inlets.
  • They can provide three-phase power, which charges three times faster and achieves a better grid balance.

At these stations, an EV can be charged in about 3.5 hours from empty to full. A slower home charge on a standard 10A power socket will take around 10 hours.

Data collection and software development

Data logging

Data was recorded from the vehicles as well as the charging stations through data loggers and 3G modems. This gave us a full picture of vehicle movement and charging patterns. We could record the vehicles' driving paths, charging times, their use of air-conditioning, heating and other major energy consumers.

Our team also developed a smartphone app that is especially useful for drivers to check their EV’s status while the car is on charge. This will let the driver know whether charging has finished and the car can be collected or whether it needs to charge somewhat longer.

When are cars charged?

We were particularly interested in what time of day drivers charged their cars. This determines how much renewable energy can be used for charging (to make an EV really emission-free) and whether electricity utilities have to worry about an increase of peak demand in the future, when there might be millions of EVs. The graph below summarises the results.

Charging summary over time of day

The fleet EVs did most of their charging in the morning until mid-day, so most of the charging energy could be supplied by solar photovoltaics. This finding is significant, as company fleets are not only an early adopter of new car technology, but are also the largest customer segment for the new vehicles market in Australia.

We also looked at power usage over the trial period for public charging stations only. Even more pronounced than the overall charging curve above, charging at public charging stations happens during the day with a peak around 10-11am and a curve that almost ideally matches a solar PV curve (see the graph below).

Charging station usage in terms of power

The blue bars indicate the amounts of energy required to actually charge the EVs, while the smaller red bars indicate the amounts of energy required to maintain a plugged-in car at full level, once charging has been completed (most charging stations do not switch off once charging is completed, but continue to deliver small amounts of energy to keep the EV at the fully charged level).

We also looked at charging events in terms of “hours spent” at the charging station, rather than “energy used”. This gives a completely different picture (see graph below).

Charging station utilization in terms of time

The times required to complete the actual charging (shown in blue) are relatively minor, compared with the overall time spent just parking at the station (red). Since both energy and parking were free for the duration of the trial, obviously charging stations have often been mis-used as free parking spots, without a real need for charging.

This is not ideal, of course, because it will block charging stations for other EV owners, who may have wanted to use them. Applying standard fees for parking and power would most likely change this behaviour.

Recommendations

We found:

  • EVs can function as regular fleet pool cars for most applications.

  • The daily charging curve for fleet EVs and public charging stations can almost completely be covered by solar PVs, resulting in truly zero emission transport.

  • Without a fee structure, Level-2 (7kW) charging stations (or even Level-1, 2.4kW) are difficult to use effectively with multiple customers per day.

There is a “chicken and egg” problem in introducing EVs and charging stations. Potential EV buyers expect a certain level of charging infrastructure, while potential charging network operators are reluctant to invest before a critical mass of EVs is reached. Some form of government financial incentive would help to increase the initial uptake of EVs in Australia.

The vast majority of charging events will likely occur at home or at work with only the occasional need for using a public charging station. A network of fast-DC stations can serve the same purpose as a filling station network for petrol/diesel cars.

We recommended that a network of fast-DC stations (50kW or more) following the CCS-Combo standard be installed, which may prove much more efficient and useful than lower-powered AC-charging stations (Level-2 or Level-1).

The Electric Highway proposal with fast-DC stations between Perth and Margaret River would make an excellent demonstration project. It will allow electric vehicles to break free from the city and reach a popular holiday destination as well as major regional centres.

The lack of an Australian standard for an EV charging connector is seen as a significant hurdle for EV adoption as well as for the roll-out of charging stations. Failure to prescribe a particular connector/inlet type could lead to the import of cars and charging stations which are incompatible with one another.

Additional research is required to better understand potential positive and negative implications of large numbers of EVs on the electricity network. This requires the cooperation of energy utilities, government policy makers, EV industry, and universities.

The full WA EV Trial report is available from UWA/REV.

Join the conversation

54 Comments sorted by

  1. George Michaelson

    Person

    charging systems have a socialized cost (the infrastructure) and a use cost (the per-charge component of kwh consumed)

    your article suggests you want to use price as a control on sharing access to the socialized cost of the charge points.

    however, there is an O/R aspect of what capitalized component eg providing 1 charge point per EV at *some* location, vs the cost of use, vs, the cost recovery of the fixed asset which comes into this.

    if (for instance) all government backed EV had a home station with guaranteed access to a charger, the demand pricing of publicly available & distributed charge points would be different.

    or, if the slow charge cost at home on single-phase was somehow socialized to offset the need to fast charge elsewhere.

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  2. John Newlands

    tree changer

    What happened to the cars at the end of the trial? A good sign would be if the trial participants wanted to buy them. Ideally the cars should be fast charged from a clean energy source overnight or battery swapped then well used during the day, not parked at a charging point. The middle of the day is also when aircon is likely to be needed so parking avoids a stern test.

    If the loads were small perhaps scooters might have been simpler. At this point I don't think short range daytime charged electric SUV type vehicles are the answer to petrol cars. I believe CNG/petrol dual fuel cars are what motorists want if they can be made cheap enough.

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  3. Edward Cannella

    Zoologist

    As a first step this seems to have been a very worthwhile exercise. "Solutions" to various problems can be forwarded by many and anyone. However, the fundamental question that has been answered is that it is a viable alternative. I guess desire, funding and guts to continue down this path is required now to ensure that the three years were not wasted. Well done.

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  4. Andrew Gilmour

    logged in via Facebook

    Okay, so it is 131 km per one charge.
    To charge a car we need to produce electricity.

    How much CO2 footprint will be left if we want to conduct, say, 4 charges which would substitute one fuel tank (assuming that charges are conducted out of electricity produced by coal so far)?

    Also, what is the full charge time?

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    1. Peter Campbell

      Scientist (researcherid B-7232-2008)

      In reply to Andrew Gilmour

      If on a mainly coal grid, about on par EV or petrol for a similar car, but way better in states with rather more wind or hydro such as SA and Tas. However, the grid is getting greener while fossil fuels are getting harder to extract with more emissions from poorer or harder to get at reserves.
      Charge time: In my electric cars, about 7 hours to full if the battery were really low. However, that is hardly ever relevant. More to the point is that you get a useful amount of charge in a town car in an hour or two from an ordinary power point. A fast charger would get me 80% in half an hour but I have never needed that.

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    2. Gary Murphy

      Independent Thinker

      In reply to Andrew Gilmour

      It takes about 20kWh to get a range of 100km.

      So at 2kW (standard power point) you can charge at 10 kmr/h.
      At 5kW (installed heavy duty garage power point) you can charge at 25 kmr/h.
      At 20kW (service station fast charger) you can charge at 100kmr/h.

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    1. Darren G

      logged in via email @yahoo.com

      In reply to Peter Campbell

      Great article - but I do have a question. If I wanted to go say 260km without significant delay, how do I do that? Do I stop at a station and simply swap my battery for a fully charged one? Or do I have to stop and spend time recharging? And in the latter case how much time?

      We have had a lot of talk about developing the north of Australia. These vehicles - and many other ideas - could all be applied to building new large scale sustainable model cities on our north coasts. And Im not talking about…

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    2. Peter Campbell

      Scientist (researcherid B-7232-2008)

      In reply to Darren G

      Darren wrote; " If I wanted to go say 260km without significant delay, how do I do that?"
      As things stand now, you would take a petrol car in preference to the EV. As a family we had two cars, as many do. One of those cars never left town or did long trips even though it had 100s of km of never used range. So, it was easy for us to replace that town car with an electric car while retaining a petrol car. With a combination of bikes and now two electric cars (using accredited GreenPower) we can avoid…

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    3. Peter Campbell

      Scientist (researcherid B-7232-2008)

      In reply to Michael Shand

      Sure, I would buy a Tesla if I could afford one. As things stand, for around town I still have the electric car I converted 5 years ago which I expect to be going just fine for a long time yet. Also, there are good deals on the i-MiEV at the moment so I just got one of those for under $25K. Now my wife and I can both commute in opposite directions on greenpower. We still have a petrol car with near-hybrid fuel economy, but the EVs are still cheaper to run. We can leave the petrol car at home most of the time but it allows my family the option to take a longer trip out of town whenever we care to. For now this is luxury enough. Next project is a light-weight, pedalling assistance hub motor for my bicycle.

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    4. Michael Shand

      Software Tester

      In reply to Peter Campbell

      Wait for the next Gen of tesla's, their business model was also, luxery sports care - to prove it works, luxery 7 seater sedan at higher volumes, lower cost and then a mass market cheap vehicle

      the model X and S were the luxery sedan and are amazing cars.

      The point of the tesla example is not so much that everyone should buy a tesla but to show that all these things people highlight as problems for EV's....are all in their head, in reality, you can get the range, the power, the comfort, the reliability as well as free unlimited fuel for life

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    5. Nick Buss

      Just a guy

      In reply to Peter Campbell

      If you follow the links to the Electric Highway proposal in the article, they are talking about building fast charge stations every 40-70km along the routes from Perth to Margaret River and quote a charge time of 20 minutes. It's really quite a reasonable duration for a toilet and coffee break, and since you would have to stop every hour to hour and a half tops would be very effective at combating driver fatigue.

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  5. Mark Pollock

    Analyst

    I suppose it's interesting to test these things. It's better than just making stuff up or running unsubstantiated "projections" off models.

    It would have been nice to see some dollars in the article. I understand that electric cars, and hybrids, are somewhat on the pricey side at purchase and somewhat on the cheap side at resale.

    Also, would a family on a holiday really be happy stopping off for 3.5 hours at some way station while the car is recharged?

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    1. Peter Campbell

      Scientist (researcherid B-7232-2008)

      In reply to Mark Pollock

      So buy a second-hand one! Several iMiEVs are on Carsales under $20k with low milage.
      Use it around town to avoid wearing out the petrol car that you take for longer ranging holidays. That's what I do.

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    2. Nick Buss

      Just a guy

      In reply to Mark Pollock

      Follow the link to the Electric Highway proposal. They are quoting 20 minute charge times at fast charge stations located 40-70km apart.

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  6. Trevor S

    Jack of all Trades

    "Western Australia’s three-year trial found electric cars are a good fit for Australian cities."

    Indeed but they are a terrible solution for consumption.

    It would be nice to see a more holistic approach. How much lithium needs to be mined to replace 1/2 a Billion ICE vehicles ? How much Alu, Rare Earths etc What lucky part of the planet gets to endure the destruction from extraction, from refining ? How much destruction does it bring ? How much CO2e does all of this activity emit ?

    Then there is similarly the upgrade to infrastructure etc

    Why do we always drive off the cliff, either EV or ICE ?

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    1. Peter Campbell

      Scientist (researcherid B-7232-2008)

      In reply to Trevor S

      Lithium is one of the most common elements. 'Rare' earth elements actually are not that rare. An aluminium engine block of an ordinary petrol car takes a lot of electricity to make too. The rule of thumb for any car is that its embodied energy is around the same as is consumed in a couple of years of driving.

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    2. Michael Shand

      Software Tester

      In reply to Trevor S

      TESLA has answered all these questions

      As for how many minerals do we need to mine to build electric cars.........I don't know, how many did we have to build laptops, iphones, cellphones, car batteries, generators, cars, microwaves, etc

      Every piece of technology you own, including the little keyboard your type type typing away on......needs rare earth minerals - seems it hasn't been a stopping block so far

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  7. Gerard Dean

    Managing Director

    Here we go again - take the money out of the schools, hospitals and roads to provide 'Some form of government financial incentive would help to increase the initial uptake of EVs in Australia.'

    If the trial made economic sense there is no need to strip tax dollars from the poor or the socially disadvantaged to fund the take up by pious people wanting green hire cars.

    Gerard Dean

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  8. Gerard Dean

    Managing Director

    Oh dear, it get's worse - take this dream- 'The fleet EVs did most of their charging in the morning until mid-day, so most of the charging energy could be supplied by solar photovoltaics.'

    Does the author have any idea how little power photovoltaics provide compared with how much power a car needs to carry itself and its passengers down the road.

    A large domestic PV installation that covers most of a large home's roof averages 4KWH on a sunny, cool day. To charge the car's 23 KWH battery pack would take about 6 to 8 hours. Imagine the size of the parking lot with integrated PV panel chargers the size of a small house for each car - it would be simply impossible to install in any Australian city or built up area.

    Will someone do the sums for these poor people and put them out of their misery.

    Gerard Dean.

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    1. Peter Campbell

      Scientist (researcherid B-7232-2008)

      In reply to Gerard Dean

      Yes, I have done that sum. For five years I have been driving a home converted car similar to the ones in the trial. Doing 10,000km/year I have consumed almost exactly the same amount of power as my 1.8kW PV system actually put into the grid in the same period. Not by design, just a pleasing coincidence.

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    2. Peter Campbell

      Scientist (researcherid B-7232-2008)

      In reply to Peter Campbell

      PS. The mistake in Mr. Dean's calculation is to assume the full battery capacity is drained every day.

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    3. Peter Follett

      logged in via Facebook

      In reply to Gerard Dean

      Gerard,

      I have read that the Model T Ford was named the world's most influential car of the 20th century. Should everyone of the 15+ million buyers from 1908-1927 have sat on their hands waiting for the A Model?

      Across the Atlantic the VW Beetle sold over 20 million units. Should those buyers have stayed home and waited for the Golf to be released?

      Peter Campbell and many others, this research project, and the Tesla roller-coaster ride are all stepping stones to a sustainable transport…

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    4. Peter Campbell

      Scientist (researcherid B-7232-2008)

      In reply to Peter Follett

      Apparently Mrs. Ford did not drive her husband's product, preferring to drive a Detroit Electric car. Like many of her contemporaries, particularly women, she preferred an electric car with the advantages of being quiet, not smelly and not needing to be hand-cranked to start.
      Hand-cranking was a big negative for petrol cars. It took strength and was dangerous. The addition to the petrol car of a generator, a battery and a small electric motor provided automatic cranking and then petrol cars took off. If it had been done the other way around, adding a small petrol engine and a generator to an electric car, we might have had a plug-in series hybrid like the Holden Volt back in the 1930s.

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  9. Gerard Dean

    Managing Director

    In regard to the author's statement, ' The fleet EVs did most of their charging in the morning until mid-day, so most of the charging energy could be supplied by solar photovoltaics.'

    I read over the UWA/REV trial report and it showed a photo of an electric Hyundai Getz charging at a solar powered station. The solar installation is massive, several times larger than a standard parking bay.

    Just imagine how large a typical car park will have to be made - hectares and hectares of solar panels to charge a few electric cars. It will be impossible to install these systems in Australian cities or built up areas.

    Do the sums.

    Gerard Dean

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    1. Alice Kelly
      Alice Kelly is a Friend of The Conversation.

      sole parent

      In reply to Gerard Dean

      Not if it's a combined concentrated solar and wind power source. They're more efficient . Also, at some stage even the paint on the roof of the car could be charging the car.
      Do you seriously believe that technology remains static. Or just your thinking Gerard.
      Here's a commercial source of information, lots of pictures, there's also information about other renewables so that you can see how far the world has moved while we all argue.
      http://cleantechnica.com/category/clean-transport-2/electric-vehicles/

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  10. Gerard Dean

    Managing Director

    Also, the UWA/REV Trial report claims that the CO2 output for the petrol powered Ford Focus is 1,800 whatsit's compared with ZERO whatsit's for the battery powered Focus. In brackets there is a small proviso (If renewable energy used)

    Was renewable energy used during the trial - NO. So the University of Western Australia deliberately misrepresents the amount of pollutant output by the battery car compared with the petrol car during the trial.

    Truly excellent scientific method boys and girls.

    Gerard Dean

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    1. Neil Gibson

      Retired Electronics Design Engineer

      In reply to Gerard Dean

      Well said Gerard! These must have been Government fleet cars if they were sitting idle charging until midday:)
      Electric vehicles do not make sense in Australia but that will not stop the industry asking for large amounts of tax-payers funds. The cars have been a commercial disaster overseas which should be an object lesson for Aussies but I fear it will make no difference. Cars such as the Volt are more useful but are still too expensive and require huge subsidies.

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    2. Peter Campbell

      Scientist (researcherid B-7232-2008)

      In reply to Alice Kelly

      According to Gerard everyone with a electric car also has an Audi 4WD as well (http://theconversation.com/will-electricity-save-the-car-20617). I just can't find mine. I must have missed the 'Buy-an-electric-car-get-a-free-Audi' deal.
      I can assure anyone who cares to listen that for the past 5 years of driving an electric car on renewable energy (www.greenpower.gov.au) I have found it to be cheap and practical and it greatly reduced the amount of petrol we have put through our other car (not an…

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    3. Alice Kelly
      Alice Kelly is a Friend of The Conversation.

      sole parent

      In reply to Peter Campbell

      Peter, the answer has to be yes, (politicised motivation), I notice that every time Gerard seeks to "stand up" for the poor or marginalised, it's when "green subsidisation" is somehow an issue. I myself want an electric ute. But like the home tinkerers in this article, http://www.smh.com.au/digital-life/cartech/bright-sparks-look-to-drive-electric-engine-changes-20110723-1huba.html
      I'll wait for cheaper more efficient batteries. Two years may be a good time? I imagine solar panels above the tray. And I want 250 km. I produce more than enough electricity, but it's now easy for me to add to the "industrial site" I call my roof. And anyway, this stuff will help the poor as it gets cheaper and more efficient. Double crap!

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    4. Peter Campbell

      Scientist (researcherid B-7232-2008)

      In reply to Alice Kelly

      I have a friend with a home-converted ute which could carry enough battery for that sort of range and he is thinking to change vehicles. Where are you and is there a way to get in touch off line if you would like to discuss it?

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    5. Alice Kelly
      Alice Kelly is a Friend of The Conversation.

      sole parent

      In reply to Peter Campbell

      Peter, the other thing not realised is that technological change often happens from the ground up, and that necessity can help as an impetus. Like my grandmother, who converted a tractor to methane during the war, (Well maybe the old overseer did the work) 02 64967039.

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    6. Neil Gibson

      Retired Electronics Design Engineer

      In reply to Alice Kelly

      Lomborg sums it up really well.
      http://www.project-syndicate.org/commentary/the-false-promise-of-electric-cars-by-bj-rn-lomborg
      I am a technologist and love technology but as an engineer I know that a successful design is needed before production commences. Alice is right is saying that the battery technology is not there yet and when it is we should begin producing electric cars. Getting government handouts and making thousands of cars which are not fit for purpose is not the answer. The response from consumers even with the subsidies is underwhelming .With the US projecting that .1% of cars in 2015 will be electric it is obvious to anyone other than the dreamers that at the moment it is a lost cause.

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    7. Peter Campbell

      Scientist (researcherid B-7232-2008)

      In reply to Alice Kelly

      Hi Alice,
      Thanks, I left a message for you with my number. I agree that change can happen from the ground up. My motivation to start converting a car to electric drive over 5 years ago was to publicise the fact that it is possible to have the convenience of a town car while running it on renewably sourced energy. Theory is all very well but people take notice when they see an EV take off at the lights and talk to someone who has been driving like that for years. It is harder to be a nay-sayer then and easier for the commercial producers to bring a mass product to market.

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    8. Michael Shand

      Software Tester

      In reply to Neil Gibson

      TESLA takes your concerns and impales them

      TESLA - free chasrging from solar for LIFE

      0-100 in 4.2 seconds - faster than some porshes

      280 miles of range

      your concerns are steeped in ignorance not reality

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    9. Peter Campbell

      Scientist (researcherid B-7232-2008)

      In reply to Neil Gibson

      Trouble is that Lomborg is all about doing nothing now, putting off any action on urgent matters till tomorrow when we have better technology.
      The facts are that very adequate LiFePO4 batteries became available to home constructors 6-7 years ago and fancier ones are available to car manufacturers. The battery used in the Prius has proven robust since the late 1990s.
      Electric motors of all sorts are mature technology. They have been around in diverse applications for over a century. Sophisticated motor control electronics was available from other applications and has been transferred across to cars.
      Not all cars need to be long range when you have the convenience of plugging in at home. My town car has been 'fit for purpose' for the last 5 years and continues to be so.

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    10. Alice Kelly
      Alice Kelly is a Friend of The Conversation.

      sole parent

      In reply to Peter Campbell

      Also, it's just as likely that innovation is easier when not tied to investors. the problem here is that some don't think beyond our ocean border. And are completely unaware of change already accepted overseas. So it's really good for you and others to mention your experiences and electric cars 96 years old. (I'll call tonight, the teachers are on strike, so I won't have a phone much today. Thanks.)

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    11. Gary Murphy

      Independent Thinker

      In reply to Neil Gibson

      As usual Lomborg doesn't get it - he is just making lame excuses for inaction.

      Commercialisation drives cost reductions by making use of economies of scale and sharpening the R&D focus on cost reductions.

      The reason electric cars are currently so expensive is because of low production numbers. EV battery costs run at about $500/kWh which amounts to $10,000 for a range of 100km. And EVs don't need the ICE engine / transmission system.

      That means an EV with 100km range should only be around $5000 more than an equivalent ICE car when production numbers increase. And EVs are much cheaper to run. And battery costs will decrease with increased production volumes too.

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    12. Michael Shand

      Software Tester

      In reply to Neil Gibson

      "I am a technologist and love technology but as an engineer I know that a successful design is needed before production commences"

      So either you are bad at your job or you know something Elon Musk doesn't

      Implicit in your comment is that the Tesla Model S is badly designed.....a bold statement

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  11. Michael Shand

    Software Tester

    Good Article,

    Seems Tesla are decades ahead of everyone else who thought they need to ask stupid questions like "Can electric vehicles work in australia?" - because we are just that fkn special

    Tesla has charging stations right accross norway, and california, and soon all of the USA

    Can Electric vehicles work in australia? jesus, I'm glad they did the study but the answer is obviously: Offfff Coooouuuurrrrsssseeee

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    1. Peter Campbell

      Scientist (researcherid B-7232-2008)

      In reply to Michael Shand

      A friend was visiting Silicon Valley recently. He said there were Teslas everywhere and owned by people on relatively ordinary salaries. It seems they preferred to buy the local product over something from Detroit.
      Having said that, I recently chatted with the owner of a car made in 1917 by the Detroit Electric Car Company, still running fine on the original motor although the original lead acid battery has now been upgraded to lithium cells. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Detroit_Electric

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    2. Michael Shand

      Software Tester

      In reply to Peter Campbell

      Yeah, the maintenance on EV's is crazy good.

      All these "obstacles" to fully electric mass market vehicles are all in people's heads as demonstrated by tesla

      tesla started from nothing and won car of the year for the Model S - pure electric, faster than a porshe on 100km stretch

      so what is wrong with mitsi or toyota? whats stopping them from building a great EV? nothing, they just don't want to

      but hey, lets bail out holden with another hundred million dollars aye

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  12. Jack Haley

    Policy advisor

    The Level 1 (SAE J1772) also has the option of a 60 amp charging current which allows fast charge.

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  13. robin linke

    stamp dealer

    Although I have little technical expertise I was impressed with the report on the trial of the electric car and the strong support expressed in the comments. Electric cars are clean and silent and carbon free.

    The problems seem to be about recharging batteries. There is no point in having electric cars unless the power supply is going to be substantially carbon free and convenient and this can only be done with 24/7 carbon free base load power. Only nuclear and hydro can do this, but nuclear…

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    1. Michael Shand

      Software Tester

      In reply to robin linke

      Look at the TESLA model,

      Charging stations right across Norway and USA

      Powered by Solar

      Free charging....for LIFE

      again all the concerns about electric cars, all of them are based on lack of knowledge

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  14. Rusdy Simano

    'Wally' the Engineer

    Big kudos to the team for this EV trial project. For such trial run happens in WA, definitely knocks my socks off (I'm still under the impression WA is the bogan state, not that anything wrong being bogan... :)

    Even more surprising, the trial car(s) are now on sale with such a bargain price. But I'm not telling anyone where I bumped (by pure coincidence) the sale site. Electric car for 22k?

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