Like it or not, evidence now shows that men and women differ genetically far more profoundly that we previously recognised. An analysis from the 2017 winner of the Prime Minister's Prize for Science.
Fracture risk is higher in older women than men, but in adolescence the reverse is true. These differences mean our approach to managing bone health for men and women changes across the ages.
If something goes wrong in pregnancy, a boy baby is more likely to be born malnourished or stillborn than a girl. This may have an evolutionary basis.
Gender is important in defining susceptibility and exposure to a number of mental health risks. Gender can also explain differences in mental health outcomes.
Heart disease has long been considered a man's condition. Our ignorance of its impact on women has led to gaps in outcomes for men and women suffering the same condition.
In medical training and practice, gender differences have at last become a vital part of diagnosis and treatment.
Women have evolved to have stronger immunity than men. But this comes with downsides -
women are more likely to have autoimmune diseases due to their "reactive" immune systems.