Bootlegs - across formats - have experienced buoyancy within the music marketplace for the last 40 years or so.
Bootlegs will continue to be manufactured.
The future of the bootleg might just reinvent the official release.
Jay Z, Beyoncé and daughter Blue Ivy sit court side at a basketball game in New Orleans in Feb. 2017. Jay Z opened up about his relationship with Beyoncé on his new album, “4:44.”
(AP Photo/Gerald Herbert)
In 4:44, his 13th album, Jay-z gets confessional and socio-political, challenging traditional notions of Black male bravado and masculinity.
J Cole at Etihad Stadium in 2014. Cole (aka ‘Therapist’) runs non-profit organisation Dreamville Foundation, and houses single mothers rent-free in his childhood home.
Photo supplied by Michelle Grace Hunder
Hip hop often gets a bad rap but for therapists and teachers it can be a transformative tool.
In the work of many rappers today, the legacy of Tupac Shakur lives on.
Tupac's sensitivity, intelligence and creativity confronted the hostile forces that antagonized black youth across the country in the 1970s and 1980s.
Former James Brown drummer Clyde Stubblefield playing in 2005.
The recently deceased funk drummer Clyde Stubblefield created arguably the most sampled drum track in the history of popular music – but he rarely got the credit, or the payment, he deserved.
Ben Birchall/PA Wire
Skepta's Mercury Prize win has put grime – and youth culture – in the spotlight.
Government shows offer relatively regular income with access to big crowds.
Music and politics have long been intertwined and political patronage can sometimes lead artists to self-censor. On the other hand, some musicians are just more interested in entertainment than politics.
Through The Lens of Hip-Hop: UK Women.
© Kay Fi'ain
Hip hop is starting to be used in schools and in the community in creative and diverse ways.
Fifteen years ago, The Avalanches won four awards at the 15th Annual ARIA Music Awards. How has music changed in a decade and a half?
AAP Image/Dean Lewins
The Avalanches' legendary first album, Since I Left You, was a modern classic, built from more than 3500 music samples. Sixteen years on, they're finally releasing a second one - but will it resonate in an age when everyone samples?
Heads of state at an African Union session in Addis Ababa. They have signed up to a plan that envisages strengthening institutions and governance.
If the governing ANC ignores the calls for Zuma's resignation,it may undermine South Africa's leadership on the continent. It creates the idea that he can undermine the constitution with impunity.
The Imin'esisdenge crew performing at Vukani in Grahamstown.
Hip-hop artists do it differently in a town in one of South Africa's poorest provinces. Eschewing the archetypal hip-hop lifestyle, Grahamstown's rappers propose a surprising alternative.
Q-Tip and Phife Dawg performing in 2013.
Yui Mok/PA Archive
If we can even begin to recognise and celebrate hip hop for what it was, we just may have the beginnings of a suitable epitaph for Phife Dawg.
Kanye functions as a mirror for the most visible and occasionally garish values of his time.
Charles Platiau/ Reuters
Many have long forgotten the simple fact that Kanye West is one of the greatest producers of hip-hop in its history. A decade-long six-album streak of critically acclaimed albums rivals the greatest icons of pop.
Ice-T performing at a music festival.
Californian rap and jazz poetry may sound like an odd mix – but both are rooted in historic inequalities
Jockeying for power in the rap world: earlier this summer Drake and Meek Mill traded barbs.
Drake (on left): Steve Marcus/Reuters; Meek Mill: Kevork Djansezian/Reuters
Taking a lyrical swing at another rapper is part and parcel of the genre. So why the profound backlash when Meek Mill accused Drake of not writing his own lyrics?
Hip-hop artists such as American rapper Method Man are often accused of creating music than incites anti-social behaviour.
Often we form opinions of music because of how aggressive, depressing or joyful we perceive it to be. But studies into the effects of different music genres on listeners' moods throw up some surprises.
The biopic Straight Outta Compton tells the story of rise and fall of Los Angeles rap group NWA.
Though they presented themselves as hardened gangsters, the only rap sheets NWA had were notebooks full of song lyrics.
Many cities are starting to recognise that street art has both a cultural and economic value.
Is graffiti art or crime? While many cities have adopted tough legal measures to prevent graffiti, they are also beginning to recognise the cultural and economic value of street art.
Sir Paul McCartney thinks it’s ridiculous (but flattering) that people formally study The Beatles.
Sir Paul McCartney has been making some waves. On New Year’s Eve, Kanye West released a new single, Only One, a collaboration with The Beatles great on keys. On Twitter, Kanye’s fans reacted, wanting to…
Hip-hop artist 360 caused a stir this week with his comments on the Southern Cross.
AAP Image/Tracey Nearmy
Australian hip-hop artist and rapper 360 (Matt Colwell) caused an uproar earlier in the week when he said on Q&A that he identified the Australian flag and the Southern Cross with racism. 360 announced…