In sentencing, judges usually consider and balance four main purposes of punishment.
In historic cases the potential for a sentence to rehabilitate, incapacitate or deter the offender is largely insignificant – leaving the focus solely on retribution.
Organised crime costs the EU economy an estimated €110 billion a year.
Restorative justice has worked for other offenders and their victims. New research has looked at whether it is suitable for organised crime.
An October 2016 peace rally in Bogota, just before the final accords were signed with the FARC guerillas.
What can Colombia can learn from other nations' transitions, both successful and unsuccessful, from war to peace?
A worker piles up leaves of rooibos tea for drying. Local people have been marginalised in the industry.
The rooibos industry has been accompanied by dispossession and adversity stretching back over centuries.
At the Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Desmond Tutu promoted restorative justice. But focusing on individuals neglects broader contexts of violence and inequality.
If violent contexts aren't taken into account, restorative justice does not serve broader society. Instead it serves as a peacemaking process within a paradigm stacked against the poor and vulnerable.
Colombian president Juan Manuel Santos and FARC leader Ridrigo Lodono announce the signed peace accord in Cartagena.
The peace accords signed by the FARC and the Colombian govenment on September 26 are momentous, but they're only the beginning of the path to peace.
Weighing up restorative justice.
MPs have proposed that restorative justice should eventually become a right in the UK.
South Africa is slowly transforming the retributive Western criminal justice system it inherited from colonial times to incorporate African principles of reconciliation and reparation.
The emergence of the restorative justice philosophy responds to the need to change South Africa's retributive criminal justice system to accommodate African legal practices.
Most of Tasmania’s relatively small prison population is housed at Risdon Prison Complex.
Wikimedia Commons/'Risdon' by Wiki ian
Imprisonment rates in Tasmania have steadily declined over the past decade -- the only state or territory where this has happened. That is a result of progressive and effective corrections policies.
Suspects await their turn in front of a gacaca court
To mark the 21st anniversary of the Rwandan genocide: lessons from the "gacaca" courts, the country's unique and ambitious community justice initiative.
The evidence is in: policies to name and shame young offenders are based on knee-jerk assumptions and disrupt rehabilitative efforts.
Last month, Queensland’s Attorney-General Jarrod Bleijie called for the public naming of all youth who appear in court. Echoing practices from the deep south of the USA where t-shirts, signs outside homes…
Young offenders may not be equipped with the skills to help them deal with restorative justice.
Educating young offenders about the consequences of their crimes is a key way to ensure they don’t re-offend. But bringing them face to face with their victims may not always be the right way to go. Young…