Jim Thorpe and Ben Johnson were both banned from the Olympics. But if each had played at different points in history, they would have been allowed to compete.
Nick Lehr/The Conversation
In sports, what's considered fair play has changed throughout history. At one point, even looking 'too poor' was grounds for exclusion.
Gold medal winner Mack Horton (centre) said he had no time or respect for drug cheats in reference to silver medallist Sun Yang.
Rarely do we see such unscripted individual honesty on difficult topics such as doping, right in the middle of arguably the biggest international sporting stage.
Athletes seek to gain competitive advantages in lots of different ways and many of these are not banned.
Doping simply gives athletes an advantage that can be compared to other forms of training regimes. So why the moral outrage?
There’s little justification for a blanket ban; all Russian Olympic athletes did not collectively commit a wrong.
The IOC will allow Russian athletes to compete in Rio 2016 if they've been cleared by their respective international sporting federation of doping. Should other countries pull out of the games?
Do PEDs make athletes less human?
'Cyborg' via www.shutterstock.com
As technology becomes fully integrated into our everyday lives, we may see athletes as the last vestiges of our humanity.
The scandal of systematic doping orchestrated by Russian government agencies and the Russian anti-doping body (RUSADA), involving the disposal of thousands of biological samples or their replacement with…
Higher, faster, stronger.
Only a better understanding of what drives doping can improve enforcement. To do so, we must break with the perception of doping as an individual or moral problem.
The countries who regularly top the medal table spend millions on training and developing athletes, money that poorer countries simply can't afford to spend on their sporting stars.
It’s grossly unfair to hold Russian athletes responsible for the mistakes of regulatory authorities.
The International Olympic Committee will allow Russians wanting to compete in the Rio 2016 Olympics the chance to do so if they can prove they're clean to their sports federation.
Russian Sports Minister Vitaly Mutko speaks to the media in Moscow.
Alexander Zemlianichenko Jr/AAP
The entire Russian Olympic team could be banned from competing in the 2016 Rio Olympics. How can the International Olympic Committee ban an entire country?
The IOC must act, probably by banning Russia for being non-complaint with the international anti-doping regime.
Where Russia broke the cardinal rule of doping – don’t get caught – the anti-doping regime has broken a cardinal rule of nature: don’t poke the Russian Bear.
Kenyan athletes exercise in the early morning near a high-altitude training camp.
With weeks to go before the Olympics, it's unlikely Kenya will be sanctioned over fresh doping claims. No matter what happens, a shadow will be cast over the integrity of the country's athletes.
Sebastian Coe, president of the International Association of Athletics Federations, which has upheld its ban on Russian athletes competing internationally.
The International Association of Athletics Federations has upheld its ban on the Russian Athletic Federation from competing in the Rio 2016 Olympics.
From left, Kenya’s Florence Kiplagat, Emily Chebet and Joyce Chepkirui celebrate victory at the Commonwealth Games in Glasgow.
Banning Kenya from the Rio Olympics would raise questions about the overall inclusiveness of the Games and equality in global sporting opportunities.
On their knees. Scrutiny and stigma for athletes has ramped up.
The history of the fight against drug taking in sport shows us why we're in such a mess right now.
French authorities investigating.
There are days when you just want to think about buttercups and Jamie Vardy.
Down but not out.
Maria Sharapova faces a ban from tennis after testing positive for a banned substance. But there is reason to believe that both she and her sponsors will make a comeback.
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Health risks loom as weekend athletes aiming to beat their mates become a new frontline for anti-doping.
Tennis is a sport very suitable for corruption in this hyper-commercialised era.
For the most part, Australian sports are heavily regulated and proactive in addressing doping. The same cannot be said about gambling.
Athletes are marginalised in anti-doping processes led by the World Anti-Doping Agency.
Having learned some hard lessons with the Essendon case, Australia should lead the way in developing a better approach to drug control and anti-doping in sport.