Sporting extravaganzas are a way for globalising cities in emerging market economies to try and play the "modernity game". But they don't make the rules, and so they can never "win".
Slums are an increasing common phenomenon across the global North and global South. To what extent could they be seen as an inherent part of the urbanisation process?
Data show that many people who consider themselves ‘global citizens’ also harbor strong national sentiments. The two aren’t mutually exclusive.
Maboneng in Johannesburg represents one strand of the type of urban “development” that's advocated for by the proponents of “global cities”.