Drivers for online ride-hailing services face several social conditions that may challenge their efforts to transform collective action into a solid union.
Increased foreign investment in the digital economy means a national conversation is needed to ensure that citizens don't get exploited.
Using technology and rhetoric, ride-hailing companies manage to dictate drivers while simultaneously creating the illusion of equal relation.
Indonesia revised a regulation on ride-hailing services to ensure fair competition. But the government has yet to address the job insecurity issues that drivers face.
Better knowledge about the local market helps Indonesia's ridesharing startup Gojek beat Silicon Valley tech company Uber in Indonesia.