There are reasons to be cautiously optimistic about Bissau-Guinean politics going forward.
South Africa's local governments lack a clear separation of legislative and executive powers.
Credit ratings have an impact on government, as well as ordinary people. This article was first published last year as South Africa faced a possible downgrade.
What are the early warning signs of threats to the stability of African democracies? The signs could be seen in Mali before it exploded in 2012. Ghana and others would do well learn from Mali.