Along with growing hostility towards journalists globally, the media climate in the Pacific has also been deteriorating.
The biggest threats are the concentration of media ownership and attempts to legislate the online media environment.
For democracy to work, the press has to be free.
The sustainability of the news media is a precondition for good journalism in the public interest. Thus, economic questions should form part of discussions of press freedom.
New forms of artistic expression are driving debates in East Africa that challenge sensitive subjects. But the backlash has been vicious.
The problem is not the journalism itself, but the editorial processes that increasingly rely on non-journalistic procedures and practices.
South African investigative journalists and civil society played a crucial role in bringing a country in the clutches of patronage networks back from the brink.
On World Press Freedom Day, we must deal with the threat data collection and surveillance poses to journalism.
While some African countries have shown an improvement in press freedom and freedom of expression ratings, others, including South Africa, are seeing worrying trends and a drop in rankings.
Press freedom has changed little in the past decade. If the African Union is to commit to the principles of democracy, it needs to do more to uphold freedom of expression and protects its journalists.
Namibia’s rise in the World Press Freedom rankings is stunning. The media environment in Africa, too, has improved. But media closures and the harassment of journalists are not yet things of the past.