As I found, academics engaging in fieldwork research are in a particularly vulnerable position.
Not only do some countries perpetrate direct attacks on students and academics but the internationalisation of higher education has also created new global threats.
Most medical research is funded by industry, not public sources. And industry puts pressure on researchers in many ways, from guiding the research question to suppressing unfavourable findings.
There is growing concern that China is trying to use universities to silence its critics in the West.