Because of their sedative effect, antipsychotic medications are often used – in fact they are over-used – to "manage" people with dementia. This is against clinical guidelines.
Doctors tend to overestimate how good their treatments are and underestimate the harms that come from them. But many studies have shown knee arthroscopy to no more effective than fake surgery.
A colonoscopy is usually done to diagnose bowel cancer. It is an invasive procedure with risks such as bowel perforation. It's important to only have the test if you're likely to benefit.
Rates of spinal fusion surgery for back pain are on the rise. This is despite little evidence that it's an effective procedure and studies showing many will have revision surgery within ten years.