Earth has liquid rock inside. Here’s what happens to that rock to make lava happen.
An overhead shot of a volcano crater in east Java, Indonesia.
Drones can be used to collect gas samples from active volcanoes, where it is too dangerous for researchers. This data can be then used to predict the frequency and severity of eruptions.
Marco Di Marco/AP
Volcanoes themselves can also impact the climate, due to a “cooling effect” that comes after eruptions.
Salvatore Allegra / AP
New modelling shows how tectonic plate movements, carbon-rich deep-sea sediment, and mountain weathering have regulated Earth’s climate.
Artwork by Katrina Kenny © 2022
Research has found evidence in NSW for one the most devastating series of volcanic eruptions known.
Workers for the Tonga Geological Services look at the smoke poring from the eruption site.
(Tonga Geological Services/Government of Tonga)
In 1983, a Canadian group helped rebuild traditional cooking houses in Tonga in the aftermath of a devastating cyclone. The Tonga Kitchens project offers lessons for Canadian aid today.
The volcano shortly before its eruption.
Maxar via Getty Images
A phenomenon first theorized over 200 years ago is also a telltale sign of nuclear tests.
Beachgoers watch waters rise during a tsunami advisory on a beach in Santa Cruz, Calif.
(AP Photo/Nic Coury)
Tsunamis can be generated by underwater volcanic explosions thousands of miles away. The Jan. 15 explosion in Tonga resulted in tsunami advisories for British Columbia and all along the U.S. west coast.
A submarine eruption 34 nautical miles off the coast of Tonga’s capital, Nuku'alofa. March 18 2009.
Monitoring volcanoes is a bit trickier when they’re deep under the ocean’s surface.
On Jan. 15, 2022, coastal areas across California were placed under a tsunami warning.
Gado via Getty Images
Tsunamis aren’t just bigger-than-average waves. Triggered by undersea earthquakes or volcanic eruptions like the one in Tonga, they are fast, massive and potentially destructive. Here’s why.
Satellite image of the Tonga explosion.
TONGA METEOROLOGICAL SERVICES/EPA
Volcanic eruptions can wreak havoc in the upper atmosphere.
AP/Planet Labs PBC
Future events could damage the critical portion of the undersea network which links to Australia.
Lava flows from a fissure in the aftermath of eruptions from the Kilauea volcano on Hawaii’s Big Island, May 22, 2018.
Andrew Richard Hara/Ena Media Hawaii via Getty Images
Volcanoes might seem like nature’s incinerators, but using them to burn up trash would be dangerous and disrespectful to indigenous people who view them as sacred.
Fadli Taha (45 years old) with a photo of his family in front of his house which was buried by hot clouds from Mount Semeru in Sumberwuluh Village, Lumajang, East Java, Tuesday 7 December 2021.
ANTARA FOTO/Zabur Karuru/foc.
To answer this question, it’s important to understand how PVMBG of the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources classify the physical events of Semeru and the corresponding alert level.
The eruption in East Java that claimed 22 lives on Saturday was likely triggered by weather conditions rather than by internal unrest inside Mount Semeru, which would have been easier to monitor.
CNSA Lunar Exploration and Space Engineering Center
Volcanic Moon rocks collected by a Chinese probe last year are around 2 billion years old, a new analysis shows. That’s a billion years younger than those brought back by the Apollo and Luna missions.
A key goal of the Chang'e-5 mission was to find evidence of some of the youngest volcanic eruptions on the Moon.
A previously unknown filtering process inside some volcanoes can cause magma to shoot out like champagne from a bottle - and perhaps even make it easier to forecast when a volcano is about to erupt.
The eruption of Krakatoa in 1883 sent volcanic dust and gases circling the Earth, creating spectacular sunsets captured by artists.
William Ashcroft via Houghton Library/Harvard University
The Rev. Sereno Edwards Bishop mobilized ship captains to track the extraordinary sunsets appearing around the world after Krakatau erupted in 1883.
In late summer the snow banks on these mountains turn pink, known as “watermelon snow”, thanks to blooming extremophiles.
How do organisms survive extreme conditions – and how can their adaptations help us develop better technology?