Ecowas has a patchy track record when it comes to ensuring cooperation and security across west Africa – member states are now starting to leave.
Women’s wills and last testaments provide a more nuanced picture of life in the Middle Ages than medieval stereotypes allow, such as that depicted in “Death and the Prostitute” by Master of Philippe of Guelders.
Gallica/Bibliothèque nationale de France/Feminae
European women’s rights expanded in early medieval cities, though they were still limited. Last wills and testaments were some of the few documents women could dictate themselves.
People protest against the conflict in eastern DRC during an African Union assembly in Addis Ababa on 17 February 2024.
Amanuel Sileshi /AFP via Getty Images
Protests in Kinshasa are an indictment of the lack of attention to the Congolese crisis.
In 2015, BNP Paribas was required to forfeit t $8.83 billion and pay a $140 million fine after failing to comply with sanctions against Sudan, Cuba and Iran.
German banks located outside of areas regulated by a key financial watchdog sharply increased business with sanctioned countries.
European farmers took various demands to Brussels on February 1, 2024, clogging the streets with 1,300 tractors as EU leaders met for a summit.
At the farmers’ protests in Brussels in February, there were some who demanded for authorities to cut back red tape, while others rallied against market concentration. But such a polarisation isn’t insurmountable.
A mannequin in a coffin illustrates the distress of many farmers who have been demonstrating for several days on the A7. Photo taken on 24 January near Montélimar.
Why are French farmers blocking the roads? An academic who has been studying discontent within the farming world since 2019 provides some clues.
Protesters in Niger’s capital Niamey hold a Russian flag and banner with images of coup leaders in Niger, Burkina Faso, Mali and Guinea.
AFP via Getty Images
Niger’s recent military romance with Russia could escalate tensions with France, regional allies and the European Union.
Students attend a class at the Averroès school in Lille, France, in September 2023.
Sameer Al-Doumy/AFP via Getty Images
Some of the measures the French government has taken to fight radicalization can do the opposite, three social scientists argue.
A study saw racialized students in Ontario French immersion programs write monologues and stories about their experiences, and also invited immersion stakeholders like teachers and parents to give feedback on
race and racism in Ontario immersion programs.
Listening to voices of racialized students in French immersion matters for creating more inclusive schooling.
France’s new Prime Minister, Gabriel Attal, greets his predecessor Elisabeth Borne during the handover ceremony at Matignon on 9 January 2024.
Four different prime minister in six years is unusual under France’s Fifth Republic. Managerial mechanics, absence of a majority and hyper-presidency: focus on the appointment of Gabriel Attal.
Enacting a coercive control offence in France would be a significant advance in the equality agenda, would help protect 213 000 women, 82 % of whom are mothers, and their 398 310 children co-victims of domestic violence.
The concept of “coercive control” reframes domestic violence as an attack on human rights and resources rather than an assault.
Joaquin Phoenix in Ridley Scott’s ‘Napoleon.’ Napoleon was a prolific legislator who sponsored the Civil Code, later known as the Napoleonic Code.
Ridley Scott’s focus on Napoleon’s tactical triumphs, reckless miscalculations and sexual entanglements neglects his paradoxical legacy as a lawmaker.
Created in 2014, the G5 Sahel security alliance is about to be dissolved after members pulled out.
Issouf Sanogo/AFP via Getty Images
Foreign powers’ interest in the Sahel is driven by its natural resources and strategic location for security and illegal migration control.
The 1802 Battle of Crête-à-Pierrot was part of Napoléon’s effort to retake Haiti − then known as Saint-Domingue − and reestablish slavery in the colony.
Leaving out the history of Napoléon’s brutal subjugation of Haiti is akin to making a movie about Hitler without mentioning the Holocaust.
Depending on the region, rising temperatures can have negative or positive effects on wine quality.
While the notion of terroir has long been the foundation of European wine, research in the 1930s in the US began to reveal the link between climate and wine.
The Ayès lake, in the Ariège region of the Pyrenees.
Dirk S. Schmeller
Many mountain lakes in the Pyrenees have turned green, a phenomenon that is a warning about the multiple pressures on ecosystems.
With an eye to Kant’s work, a philosopher and a sociologist argue that the Uber project robs drivers of their dignity.
Three women executed as witches in Derneburg Germany in October 1555.
Witchcraft is an enduring source of fascination but also prone to popular misconceptions.
Exil fiscal, transition écologique, solidarité… Les enjeux du débat sont nombreux et utilisés différemment selon les échelles.
While the return of a wealth tax in France and Germany seems unlikely, the reality is different at EU level, where supporters play up the climate argument.
A group of soldiers from the Niger gendarmerie at the gendarmerie school on 11 January 2023 in Niamey, Niger.
David Zorrakino/Europa Press via Getty Images
Ecowas’ threats to intervene militarily in Niger played a role in the creation of the Alliance of Sahel States, whose members have pledged to assist each other in the event of aggression.