Political extremism has a checklist. The more boxes are checked, the closer political extremism gets.
International support for Déby and the dependence on Chad’s peacekeeping troops had a downside: it came at the expense of democracy and respect for human rights.
Though its full impact is unpredictable, the withdrawal of France from Mali will have some likely effects.
There are few visible results on the ground after eight years of war in Mali.
Chad’s political institutions are corroded by corrupt politics to a degree that make true political reforms highly unlikely.
The political will displayed by the Sahel member countries of the G5 Task Force appears to be out of step with the actual capabilities of their armies.
The over-militarisation of the crisis across the Sahel region has done little to foster stability.
The struggle among elites has not resulted in efforts to improve the material lives of ordinary people unconnected to the political elite.
More than 20 years after the shift from unilateralism to multilateralism, it is reasonable to wonder how multilateral France’s ‘new interventionism’ really is.
New evidence has made possible a more accurate estimate of how many African personnel have died since the Somalia mission deployed in March 2007.