Though Renaissance concerns about 'borrowed flesh' might seem outlandish and out of date, they are surprisingly relevant to the modern surgical landscape.
To date, there have been 47 face transplants worldwide, but it's still very much an experimental procedure.
From cheap prosthetic arms for landmine victims in Sudan to the promise of surgery on astronauts in space — 3D printing is sparking a healthcare revolution.
Face transplants are one of the great leaps forward of 21st-century medicine. But soon they may not be necessary.