When offspring become more "costly" to make, mothers make fewer of them. And these offspring start life with fewer energy reserves.
The species which surround a tree in a forest make up the character of its neighbourhood. Good neighbours can make forests resilient to climate change.
We don't notice the plant species we're losing, but we won't be able to ignore the effect of their loss on our supply of food and medicine.
The koala genome, published today, gives us new and valuable information to aid conservation of this marsupial. It identifies special genes that evolved to adapt the koala to its unique lifestyle.
Brindabellaspis had eyes on the top of the head, facing upwards, and a skull stretched into a long and broad snout. Although around 400 million years old, it was clearly a specialised fish.