International borders were negotiable for the right price. What residents of former ‘homelands’ and of Lesotho and eSwatini have in common now are limited government services and few job prospects.
The life story of Mandlenkosi Makhoba represents the losers in the new South Africa, showing how inequality is produced and reproduced generationally.
Mangosuthu Buthelezi deserves better than being dismissed as an apartheid stooge. But he deserves little praise as an advocate for human rights and civil liberties.
Colonialism and apartheid sought to make traditional leaders accountable to white officials by tying them to land.
Mangosuthu Buthelezi carries extensive accountability for the sectarianism that characterised politics in South Africa before 1994.