The Ethiopian Agricultural Research is one of the oldest and largest agricultural research system in Africa. Ethiopian Agricultural Research System (EARS) has evolved through several stages since its first initiation during the late 1940s, following the establishment of agricultural and technical schools at Ambo and Jimma. In 1955, a full-fledged agricultural experiment station was established at Debre Zeit (now named Debre Zeit Agricultural Research Center) under the then Imperial College of Agricultural and mechanical Arts (now called Haramaya University) and had been continued as the major research entity until the mid-1960s. In 1966, Institute of Agricultural Research (IAR) was established as the first nationally coordinated agricultural research system in Ethiopia. Institute of Agricultural Research (IAR) was established with a mission to formulate national agricultural research guidelines, coordinate National Agricultural Research System, and undertake research in its centers and sub-centers located in various agroecological zones of Ethiopia.
In Ethiopia, agricultural research underwent significant reform in the early 1990s following the declaration of a decentralized political system of Government of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. The National Agricultural Research System has prearranged as including the Federal Research Institute, the Regional Agricultural Research Institutes (RARIs) and research undertakings of Higher Learning Institutions (HLIs). In 1993, numbers of IAR research centers were transferred to the regional governments and become independent research centers. During this time, Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization (EARO) has established with new set up in 1997 by Proclamation number 79/1997 and later it is renamed as the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research (EIAR) on 25th October 2005.