Menu Close
People wearing military gear pull a large piece white fabric out of the water.
In this photo provided by the U.S. navy, sailors recover a high-altitude surveillance balloon off the coast of Myrtle Beach, S.C., on Feb. 5, 2023. A missile was fired by a U.S. F-22 off the Carolina coast to bring the balloon down. (U.S. Navy via AP)

NORAD’s value is on full display as flying objects shot down over North America

Four (and counting) air objects have violated North American airspace in less than a week.

It began with a Chinese high-altitude surveillance balloon flying over Alaska and northwestern Canada.


Read more: China violated international laws and standards with its surveillance balloon


The North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) tracked the balloon and the three other air objects. None appeared to pose a military threat to North America, but they still caused concern because they could both gather intelligence and interfere with civilian air traffic.

NORAD is binational. Canadian and United States military personnel are assigned to NORAD to focus on the defence of the North American continent, not just Canada or the U.S. It’s a vital command that has been overlooked and undervalued. It is, however, the first line of defence for both states — as many Americans and Canadians are now learning.


Read more: NORAD's struggle for relevance on its 60th birthday


NORAD’s reason for being

NORAD has three missions:

  1. It warns and tracks air objects of concern (aerospace warning)

  2. It can defeat (in other words, shoot down) these objects or escort them out of national airspace (aerospace control)

  3. It tracks maritime vessels approaching North America that may be of concern (maritime warning)

What’s unique about NORAD is that Canadian and American interceptors, personnel and assets work together seamlessly in joint commands. For example, Canadian personnel can be in charge of American NORAD personnel in Alaska while U.S. jets assigned to NORAD may operate in Canadian airspace.

NORAD personnel communicate and co-ordinate with each other across national boundaries. This is all part of the NORAD agreement.

It’s no accident that a statement by U.S. Secretary of Defense Lloyd Austin specifically noted Canada and NORAD’s role in the dramatic shooting down of the Chinese surveillance balloon over the Atlantic Ocean on Feb. 4.

A Black man in a suit stands next to a dark-haired woman in a red coat, a Canadian flag in the foreground and a military band next to them.
U.S. Secretary of Defense Lloyd Austin welcomes Canada’s Defence Minister Anita Anand to the Pentagon during a welcoming ceremony in 2023 in Washington, D.C. (AP Photo/J. Scott Applewhite)

NORAD Commander General Glen VanHerck — a four-star U.S. general — is based at Peterson Space Force Base in Colorado Springs, and can reach out to both the American president and the Canadian prime minister.

He’s equally responsible to American and Canadian citizens. If a flying object needs to be shot down, the American president approves any action in U.S. airspace while the prime minister approves it in Canadian airspace. Sovereignty is respected.

However, both Canadian and American personnel and assets are involved.

This was evident in the case of the air objects flying over the Yukon and Lake Huron.

While they were shot down in Canadian airspace with Prime Minister Justin Trudeau’s permission, American fighter jets were in position to assist and execute the commands.

Under NORAD provisions, it doesn’t matter if it’s Canadian or American jets used to shoot down unidentified flying objects over North America. NORAD’s mission was achieved with the appropriate national command authority.

NORAD now on our radar

While NORAD certainly needs modernizing — it requires not only new radars, satellites and interceptors, but also ways to integrate information and intelligence from more partners and allies — the events of the past few days show it’s agile.

Those same events have also reminded both Canadians and Americans that North America is vulnerable.

A grey-haired man in a military uniform speaks while a dark-haired man is seen behind him wearing a face mask.
Prime Minister Justin Trudeau and Gen. Glen VanHerck, NORAD commander, take part in a NORAD briefing in Colorado Springs, Colo., in June 2022. THE CANADIAN PRESS/Sean Kilpatrick

We don’t know the origins of all of the flying objects — that will be up to the FBI, RCMP and intelligence agencies to discern. If the air objects originated in foreign nations, next steps will involve the U.S. State Department and Global Affairs Canada. If they’re domestic in origin, it will be a matter for police and regulatory authorities.

Either way, the recent events have provided North Americans with a clear wake-up call. Canada is not the “fire-proof house” it once hoped it could be.

Neither is the U.S. immune from potential threats just because of its military might.

NORAD celebrates its 65th anniversary in May. The organization is clearly needed now more than ever. But its biggest challenge remains the lack of understanding of its value and importance.

If there’s any silver lining to the events of the past few weeks, perhaps it’s that North Americans will now recognize and appreciate the role NORAD plays in keeping them safe.

Want to write?

Write an article and join a growing community of more than 185,700 academics and researchers from 4,983 institutions.

Register now