Even after becoming an 'ex', former gang members must still negotiate gang associations and activities in the communities they remain in.
Rivalries will have been bred, birthed and nursed during lockdown, just as they are on the street.
Criminal gangs, insurgents and terrorist groups seek to protect the people in the areas they govern, when a central government's power is weak or nonexistent.
Gangs are still a significant reality in US prisons. But most inmates say that their power has been watered down, and they no longer rule facilities with an iron fist.
In our urban world, turning the makeshift and the informal into the livable and sustainable is our greatest challenge.