Dr Annette Idler is the Director of Studies at the Changing Character of War Centre, and Senior Research Fellow at the Department of Politics and International Relations, University of Oxford. Her work focuses on the interface of conflict, security, and transnational organized crime. She has conducted extensive fieldwork in and on crisis-affected borderlands, including more than 600 interviews with local stakeholders. Dr Idler is the author of "Borderland Battles: Violence, Crime, and Governance at the Edges of Colombia’s War" (Oxford University Press, 2019). She holds a doctorate from Oxford University's Department of International Development, an MA in International Relations from King’s College London’s Department of War Studies, and a double bachelor degree from University Complutense of Madrid, Spain; and Regensburg University, Germany.