Marielle Debos is Associate Professor in Political Science at the University Paris Ouest Nanterre, Institute for Social sciences of Politics. Prior to her appointment at Paris Ouest Nanterre in 2010, she was a Marie Curie Research Fellow at the University of California, Berkeley. Her research interests include processes of state formation, armed conflicts in Africa, as well as forms of political and ordinary violence, with a focus on Chad. Her new research project focuses on the biometric identification market in Africa. Her new book "Living by the gun in Chad: Combatants, impunity and state formation" will be published in October 2016 by Zed Book.