Robert Chaouad holds a PhD in Political Science (concentration in International Relations) from the Institute for European Studies of the University Paris 8 (France). He defended his dissertation in 2004, titled “A Political History of the Concept of European Defense”. He is currently an Adjunct Assistant Professor at York College at the City University of New York (US) teaching courses on Politics and Government in the US, and a Research Fellow at the French Institute for International and Strategic Affairs (IRIS, France), specializing in European Union issues. His main research interests focus on the European integration and the European Union as an international actor. He was previously an adjunct lecturer at the Institute for European Studies of the University Paris 8 and Editor-in-Chief of The International and Strategic Review, a quarterly journal published by IRIS.